Product name：PH 4.01(±0.02 / 25℃) buffer solution 20ml / Calibration Fluids
**Compatible for all PH Probe**
*Why should we know PH range?
PH value shows the acid or alkaline state of water (PH value equals 7 is neutral, it is alkaline as PH value is greater than 7, and acid as PH value is less than 7), most of the fish can adapt to life in water around PH=7, but many species have special water preferences.
Such as: species of PH < 7: Discus, Amazon cardinals, preferences for PH = 6.0 to 6.5.
species of PH > 7: Marine fish and African cichlids, preferences for PH = 8.4 and 7.5 to 8.0.
*The right PH ranges keep the fish right!
What to do as PH range is too low?
The PH range of wAter should be shifted up, the methods of adjustment you can take: Use coral gravels substrate, anion exchange resin, add additives of powder, solution or tablets which can shift PH,KH AND GH range up.
What to do as PH range is to high?
The PH range in water should be shifted down, the methods of adjustment you can take: Use weak-acud gravels substrate, cation exchange resin and higher portion of reverse osmosis water, Add additives of powder or solution which can shift PH range down.
Why should we know OPR (Oxidation Reduction Potential) range?
To realize it bu easy understanding aquarium concepts, The high or low value of ORP shows higher or lower capacity which can oxidize toxic ammonia and nitrite in water (but also oxidize the other materials in water)! In short, more pollutants in fish tank, ORP value is relative lower; and is ofter higher for less pollutant situation.
A well keeping coral reef aquarium
The reference reading of ORP could be between 360 (just lighted up) and 450mV (duration of switching light off).
A well keeping freshwater plant aquarium
The reference reading of ORP could be between 250 (just lighted up) and 400mV or even higher (duration of switching light off). (The higher ORP reading for lower fish population, and the lower reading for higher population.)
The denitrifying reaction chamber or filter.
The reference reading of ORP should be between -190 and 50mV. (to avoid produce the poisonous hydrogen sulfide in over reduction, the ORP value should not be below -190mV.)
The common situation in higher polluted aquarium
The common situation is lower ORP value in higher polluted aquarium and the value is not easy to be shifted up.
The common ways to take to shift the ORP value up: Use ozone generator, protein skimmer, effective trickle filter or oxygen tower to increase the dissolved oxygen in water, add additives to increase the oxidation potentials.